Publications

Youth mobility in Europe and its social, political and economic macro-drivers.

Hemming, Karen/Skrobanek, Jan/Dettmer, Michael
Youth mobility in Europe and its social, political and economic macro-drivers. A case study of Germany and Norway from 2004-2013.
EARA La Barossa "International Conference." 17.09.2016
Youth mobility in Europe and its social, political and economic macro-drivers. A case study of Germany and Norway from 2004-2013 Karen Hemming, German Youth Institute, Jan Skrobanek, Sogn and Fjordane University College, Norway & Michael Dettmer, German Youth Institute Although young people’s mobility is seen as a driving force for smart, sustainable and economic growth and further integration of the EU, research on young people’s cross-border geographic mobility within Europe is limited. Early studies identify drivers of youth mobility especially at micro- and meso-level but constantly neglect differences at macro-level. Based on this desideratum the paper examines the role of macro-level characteristics in shaping mobility among youth in Germany (EU) and Norway (non-EU). Using a heuristic theoretical model containing the sectors state, society, and economy different indicators are analysed descriptively in relation to youth-mobility. This paper aims to shed light on the questions, how cross-border youth mobility developed in both countries over the period 2004-2013 and which of the macro-indicators could explain the developments. The study is part of the EU-project “MOVE: Mapping Mobility” which has received funding from the EU-Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.649263. The current study is based on a secondary macro-data analysis. The used data derived from different sources: macro-drivers of mobility (EUROSTAT, OECD, World Bank); youth migration data (German Federal Statistical Office, Norwegian Federal Statistical Office). The secondary data was collected within the MOVE-project for the period of 2004-2013. As the present study focuses on two countries, descriptive comparisons over time for 3 selected years (2004, 2008, 2013) will be conducted. Germany and Norway are both countries with a growing economy and a decreasing youth-unemployment rate. The average wages rose slightly, whereas the job vacancy rates remained low in both countries. The level of foreign population increased and adjusted between the two countries over time. Hence, both are attractive “receiving countries” for European mobile youth. As a result, the migration proportion (incoming-outgoing to EU-countries) increased in both countries enormously. Also, the youth-immigration-rate increased. Whereas the youth-emigration to other EU countries developed differently: it remained stable in Norway and increased in Germany. In 2013 most of the young people moving to Germany came from Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary, Spain and France (all >5,000), whereas to Norway they came from Poland, Sweden, Lithuania, Romania, Denmark, Germany and Latvia (all >500). The results mirror the EU-developments, e.g. EU-enlargement, financial- and economic-crisis. They further reveal that Germany developed to both: a receiving and a sending country for mobile youth, whereas Norway remained more a receiving country. Key explanations are that both countries had a comparatively stable economic situation over the observed period, released barriers for labour market access and intensified student exchange (Bologna reform, Germany; internationalisation in education, Norway). Both countries vary regarding sending countries where the young people come from: While many youth from northern countries and Baltic States migrate to Norway, Germany seems more attractive for youth from south (-east) Europe.

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